The only item here that allows any guess at the date the first statue was erected is the fact that it mentions that this was the first man to set up a statue by public decree in other words, the city legislature voted to pay for it. Since this presumably would not be long after the city was founded no more than five or ten years , if we can figure out when Pisidian Antioch was established, we will have some idea of when it was set up, though nothing like an exact date. This is not the most famous Antioch in Syria , founded in B. Only after this date would “decemvirs” be issuing public decrees, since these were the officials comprising the city council under a Roman colonial charter. When all things are considered, we can speculate Quirinius’ duumvirate was held between 6 and 1 B. But even with other dates, the inscription offers no proof of a second governorship of Syria. First, there is no particular connection between being governor and being the Duumvir of a city. The one does not entail or even imply the other.
This approach will be adopted here in our overview of classical Persian literature, a daunting task in itself given the range and abundance of the material on the one hand, and the need for brevity and conciseness in a survey on the other. In our study of the development of this literature over ten centuries, we will pay special attention to the early formation and origins of different literary genres in Persian works, even though the very notion of literary genres is somewhat arbitrary and a subject of continuing debate and shifting delineation Fowler; Perkins.
Nevertheless the approach is suitable for an overview, for it makes it possible to discuss, however briefly, broader themes and underlying aesthetic assumptions, and to venture beyond a mere recital of dates, titles, and short biographies of major figures of Persian literature. Another major factor in a literary survey is the diachronic dimension: Persian literature lends itself well to this approach, since historical events certainly influenced literary history: The fourteenth century serves as a transitional bridge between the previous and the subsequent periods:
The Date of the Nativity in Luke (6th ed., ) Richard Carrier. It is beyond reasonable dispute that Luke dates the birth of Jesus to 6 A.D. It is equally indisputable that Matthew dates the birth of Jesus to 6 B.C. (or some year before 4 B.C.).
The earliest attested archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at Kashafrud and Ganj Par in northern Iran, confirm a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic. Elam, the most prominent of these civilizations, developed in the southwest alongside those in Mesopotamia , and continued its existence until the emergence of the Iranian empires.
The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer , and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC. Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran, and incorporated the region into their territories. Classical antiquity See also: By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe ,  rivaling the native settlers of the region.
From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the “pre-Iranian” kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire , based in northern Mesopotamia.
The Date of the Nativity in Luke (6th ed., 2011)
Nowadays, finding the most appropriate partner depends on several factors that contribute to the success of a date and relationship. Both Iranian girl and boy are required to follow all the dating rules in order to achieve success in Iranian dating. One of the very commonly advised rules is to find if your partner is jealous, and what is the root cause of that jealousy. Because jealousy is a commonly found characteristic in Iranian singles , finding out the root cause of jealousy makes it easier to deal perfectly with such a partner.
Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the principles and commands found in the Bible can help us to make decisions that both please God and benefit us. (Isaiah , 18) We did not create these principles and commands, but we do live by them. Consider how some of these relate to the subject of dating.
But it has to be borne in mind that primary sources provide us with little assessment of the importance of trade, nor can we be certain of the extent of knowledge of medieval writers in relation to technologies, material and the like. What we can be certain of is that cultural and commercial exchanges developed along sea routes, and that boat building developed in response to the need for local and long distant travel to improve. While reed craft were common in Egypt and Mesepotamia, there was little development of this type within the region.
Although they were inexpensive to build and maintain, they had limited carrying power and would only have been safe on rivers or inshore waters. As you might expect, sailing craft which developed within the region were designed for the work they had to perform and, particularly, the waters in which they would sail. Reed craft are more suited to rivers and inshore sailing and so wooden craft developed relatively quickly in order to provide safer movement across greater distances.
Initially wooden craft were constructed from planks, butted and sewn together with ribs added after the planks had been joined. This photograph shows how important the junctions between planks must have been to the integrity of the craft. This type of construction will have relied upon good craftsmanship by the boat builders, requiring accuracy in the cutting of the planks and in the making of holes for sewing the planks together.
I am not able to say what material might have been used for caulking, placed by a qalaaf , between the planks and in the holes but I believe that it would have been a fibrous material, fatail , capable of holding a substance such as fish oil, sull , as is used nowadays, to repel the ingress of sea water. As can be seen in the photograph, the planks are held with a cross stitch using a material such as leather or a suitable natural material, perhaps a root or a coir or coconut rope.
In an update to the previous paragraph I have learned that the replica of a ninth century Arab ship, the Jewl of Muscat , constructed in the Oman in , had the holes in its planks made watertight by hammering in coconut fibre which was then made watertight with a putty, shawna , made of chalk powder calcium carbonate mixed with melted khundrus resin and fish oil. Also, that the sails were made in Zanzibar from woven palm.
The material stayed pliable for a few days but eventually hardened, a difficulty where there is movement that must be accommodated.
Spice Routes & Silk Roads
Listen to this article , narrated by James Lloyd Babylon is the most famous city from ancient Mesopotamia whose ruins lie in modern-day Iraq 59 miles 94 kilometres southwest of Baghdad. The city owes its fame or infamy to the many references the Bible makes to it; all of which are unfavourable. Babylon also appears prominently in the biblical books of Daniel, Jeremiah, and Isaiah, among others, and, most notably, The Book of Revelation. It was these biblical references which sparked interest in Mesopotamian archaeology and the expedition by the German archaeologist Robert Koldewey who first excavated the ruins of Babylon in CE.
Outside of the sinful reputation given it by the Bible, the city is known for its impressive walls and buildings, its reputation as a great seat of learning and culture, the formation of a code of law which pre-dates the Mosaic Law, and for the Hanging Gardens of Babylon which were man-made terraces of flora and fauna, watered by machinery, which were cited by Herodotus as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Islamic arts: Islamic arts, the literary, performing, and visual arts of the vast populations of the Middle East and elsewhere that adopted the Islamic faith from the 7th century onward. These adherents of the faith have created such an immense variety of literatures, performing arts, visual arts, and music that.
A bas-relief at Persepolis , depicting the united Medes and Persians. By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe ,  rivaling the native settlers of the region. From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the “pre-Iranian” kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire , based in northern Mesopotamia.
The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages , and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia , Babylon , Egypt , parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
Middle East Kingdoms
In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.
Yes, the Cup of Excellence program is designed to allow any farmer in the country to submit one sample without any fee. It is one of the few programs that levels the playing field and does its best to support equal access and success for all farmers, regardless of their size or financial status.
Then,… General considerations It is difficult to establish a common denominator for all of the artistic expressions of the Islamic peoples. Such a common denominator would have to be meaningful for miniature painting and historiography, for a musical mode and the form of a poem. The relationship between the art of the Islamic peoples and its religious basis is anything but direct. Like most prophetic religions, Islam is not conducive to fine arts.
Thus, the centre of the Islamic artistic tradition lies in calligraphy , a distinguishing feature of this culture , in which the word as the medium of divine revelation plays such an important role. After the 13th century a highly refined art of miniature developed, primarily in the non-Arab countries; it dwells, however, only rarely upon religious subjects.
The typical expression of Muslim art is the arabesque , both in its geometric and in its organic form—one leaf, one flower growing out of the other, without beginning and end and capable of almost innumerable variations, only gradually detected by the eye, which never lose their charm. An aversion to empty spaces distinguishes that art; neither the tile-covered walls of a mosque nor the rich imagery of a poem allows an unembellished area, and the decoration of a carpet can be extended almost without limit.
A system of double intersecting arabesque bands covers the field. Harry Payne Bingham, ; photograph, Otto E. The centre of Islamic religion is the clean place for prayer, enlarged into the mosque , which comprises the community and all its needs. The essential structure is similar throughout the Muslim world. There are, of course, period and regional differences—large, wide court mosques of early times; the court mosques with big halls of Iran and adjacent countries; central buildings with the wonderfully shaped domes of the Ottoman Empire.
The implements , however, are the same:
Speaking about the importance of rice in Persian cuisine—”Bread is just what you have; rice marks it as a meal “—she explains that the long, tender, basmati-like variety is unlike anything else. The grains don’t stick together, which results in super-fluffy dishes. It literally translates to the “bottom of the pot,” and it’s the crispy, golden crust that forms when you cook the rice a certain way.
When I first started learning about the cuisine a few years ago, though I was enamored of the complex stews perfumed with dried limes and the fragrant desserts laced with rose water, tahdig was the grain attraction. Once you master this simple but showstopping technique, your rice dishes—Persian or otherwise—will never be the same. There is no life without tahdig.
Lonely Planet Farsi (Persian) Phrasebook & Dictionary [Lonely Planet, Yavar Dehghani] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Lonely Planet: The world’s #1 phrasebook publisher* Lonely Planet’s Farsi Phrasebook & Dictionary is your handy passport to culturally enriching travels with the most relevant and useful Farsi phrases and vocabulary for all your travel needs.
Origin[ edit ] Persian cats originate from Persia Iran. The cats were introduced in Europe in the s as highly valued items of trade. The Europeans were impressed by the Persian’s long silky coat and purposefully bred the cats to perpetuate the trait. Genetic mutations in Persians[ edit ] Two mutations of note influenced the Persian cats: Chinchilla color mutation[ edit ] The color inhibitor gene mutated in a Persian cross in in the UK in a cat called “Chinnie”. The offspring of this mutation that express the gene are commonly known as “chinchillas” presumably due to the resemblance of their coat to that of the rodent by that name.
Prashanth Kumar Sanskrit is really amazing language. I would also make the case for a connection between the sanskrit words agni and jna,,,as light, which fire is the source of, is always connected with the ability to know or perceive,,,light is often metaphorically used for consciousness. The new one derived from the old one… And this goes for every word… The problem for greeks is one: Does it hurt you?? Makes you feel awful??
An introduction. The last large traditional boat to be constructed in Qatar – a boom – was built in Doha in the early nineteen-seventies. In this photograph you can see how the majority of her ribs were left more or less as the tree trunks and branches came, and only .
It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole “official language” under the Mughal emperors. Beginning in , though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu , also historically known as Hindustani.
There is also a small population of Zoroastrian Iranis in India, who migrated around 16th th century to escape religious execution in Qajar Iran and speak a Dari dialect. This became the basis of what is now known as “Contemporary Standard Persian”. There is still substantial Arabic vocabulary, but many of these words have been integrated into Persian phonology and grammar.
The Iranian National Academy of Persian Language and Literature is responsible for evaluating neologisms in order to devise their Persian equivalents.
The art of ancient Persia includes architecture, painting, sculpture and goldsmithing from the early kingdom of Iran in southwest Asia. The term “Persia” derives from a region of southern Iran previously known as Persis, or Parsa, which itself was the name of an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the region about BCE.
The ancient Greeks extended the use of the name to apply to the whole country. In , the country officially changed its name to Iran.
Traditional Persian is one of several names for a group of cats that are considered to be essentially the original breed of Persian cat, before the variety was selectively bred to have extreme features. Other everyday usage names are: Doll Face Persian, Classic Persian, Old Fashioned Persian, Long-nosed Persian, Old-style Longhair, Traditional Longhair and Original Longhair.
They settled to the east of ancient Elam during the period of instability and migration which occurred throughout the Middle East between BC. During this same period other tribal groups such as the Aramaeans and the Sea Peoples were causing chaos further west. Despite occasional theories which have them descending from the Caucuses, the Persians were clearly of Indo-Iranian stock, an Indo-European grouping which formed in Central Asia, somewhere between modern Kazakhstan and Afghanistan.
This origin has some support in the similarity of names towards the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, and the resemblance noted between Old Persian and Sogdian languages. They drifted into what is now Iran from the east alongside other similar groups which included the Alans , Mannaeans, and Medians , probably via Sogdiana and Transoxiana, not long after Indo-Aryan groups had started to enter India.
That heritage would appear to make them descendants of Indo-Europeans who had bordered and integrated themselves into the Bronze Age culture known as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, or Oxus Civilisation centred on the later provinces of Bactria and Margiana. Although this was originally an indigenous culture, it was almost certainly subject to a slow ‘invasion’ of Indo-European tribes in much the same way as the Pelasgians of Greece were largely subsumed by the Mycenaeans.
The semi-mythical early Persian ‘kings’ seem to rule their people in those Central Asian areas already mentioned, between the Oxus and parts of eastern Iran, but with a westwards drift towards Iran. In fact, one of the names given by the Thiruvalangadu copperplate grant of the Chola family in India, Aryaman shortly after around BC , is the source of the name ‘Iran’.
This particular Aryaman was not the one who gave his name to that land, but either another Persian Indo-Iranian who also bore the name did just that, or the word originates in the name which the Indo-Iranians had for themselves – Aryans. This rather elitist naming was presumably a reaction to the apparently barbarous people they encountered, although as a probable extension of its original meaning – the word could be seen as the verb ‘to be’, used as a noun instead of a verb.
The early Persians were better known by the civilisations of the west as Parsua.